Evolution of STEM, STEAM and STREAM Education in Africa: The Implication of the Knowledge Gap

Olalekan Taofeek Badmus, Esther Ore Omosewo


Developing countries have limitations in almost every area of modernization. These limitations are not limited to only education and the classroom in which teachers and learners exercise their duties but also other aspects of human endeavours. Scholarly approaches embraced by educators in the quest to evolve knowledge, especially, those whose basis arise from Science and Mathematics have generated considerable improvement over the years. These approaches beget a pattern aimed at preparing emerging learners with up to date knowledge on how best to solve challenges required of complex, yet human everyday life. The goal of education and by extension science is to equip citizen with requisite skills to embrace challenges and solve human everyday problems. This article exposes the trend in STEM, STEAM and STREAM approaches, as well as, the rationale for each of the appendage component of the evolution. The global application of robots in areas with shortage of manpower is a trend in global economy and governance. Africa’s classroom integration and limitation of technology in classroom learning can potentially be resolved with solutions from robotics. A measure of the grounds covered in the developing countries and the gap expected to be covered were extensively explored. The limitation in knowledge, expertise and resources to cope with these emerging trends for purposeful and meaningful classroom integration in Africa were investigated.


Evolution, STEM, STEAM, STRAEM, Knowledge Gap.

Full Text:



Abimbola, I. O. & Omosewo, E. O. (2006). History of science for degree students.

Ilorin: Oyinwola Press.

Adegun O A (2003). Sociology of education, Ado-Ekiti: Petoa Educational Publishers.

Adeyemo, S. A. (2010). Teaching & Learning of Physics in Nigerian Secondary Schools: The Curriculum Transformation, Issues, Problems and Prospects. International Journal of Educational Research and Technology. 1(4),99-111

Badmus & Omosewo (2018). Improving Science Education in Nigeria: The Role of Key

Stakeholders. European Journal of Health and Biology Education.

Beals, J. (2012). Thomas edison.com. Retrieved April 30, 2012 from


Benitti, F.B.V., (2012). Exploring the educational potential of robotics in schools: A systematic

review. Computers & Education.

Boy, G. A. (2013). From STEM to STEAM: Toward a human-centred education. Paper

presented at the European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, Toulouse, France, 26–28 August 2013. http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?print=yes&R=20130011666

Butz, W. P., Kelly, T. K., Adamson, D. M., Bloom, G. A., Fossum, D., & Gross, M. E.

(2004). Will the scientific and technology workforce meet the requirements of the federal government? Pittsburgh, PA: RAND.

Clark, A. R. (2014). Boston Arts Academy: Teaching and learning reports 2013–2014.


Code.org. (2013). Anybody can learn. Retrieved on 5 March 6, 2018 from:


Department of Education, the U.K., (2013). The national curriculum in England - Framework

document, Education Editor. Crown: United Kingdom.

Eguchi, A., (2014). Robotics as a Learning Tool for Educational Transformation. Proceedings

of 5th International Conference Robotics in Education, Padova (Italy) ISBN 978-88-95872-06-3

Eisner, E. (2008). Art and knowledge. In J. G. Knowles & A. L. Cole (Eds.). Handbook of the

arts in qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Feldman, A. (2015). STEAM rising: Why we need to put the arts into STEM education.


Friedman, T.L., (2005). The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New

York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013). National Policy on Education. Lagos: NERDC press.

Holm, M. (2011). Project-based instruction: A review of the literature on effectiveness in

prekindergarten through 12th grade classrooms. Rivier Academic Journal, 7(2), 1–13. http://bie.org/object/document/projectbasedlear

Ministry of Education. (2013). Plans for operation of fund and budget managed by Ministry of

Education in 2014. Retrieved May 15, 2015, from http://www.korea.kr/archive/expDocView.do?docId=34451

Ministry of Education in Singapore. (2012). Science syllabus: lower secondary. Singapore:

Curriculum Planning & Development Division. Singapore: MOE.

National Research Council. (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: practices,

crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

Obeka, S.S. (2011) Environmental Education Reform on Solid Waste

Management in Nigeria: The Case of Zaria Municipal of Kaduna State.

STAN 52nd Annual Conference. HEBN Publishers Plc.

Piro, J. (2010). Going from STEM to STEAM: The Arts have a role in America’s future too.

Education Week, 29(24), 28–29. http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2010/03/10/24piro.h29.html?qs=STEAM

Robinson, K., (2010). Changing education paradigms. TED Talk.

Sanders, M. (2009) STEM, STEM education, STEMmania. The Technology Teacher, 68(4).


Sousa, D. A. & Pilecki, T. (2013). From STEM to STEAM: Using brain-compatible strategies

to integrate the arts. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin/Sage.

Stoelinga, S. R., Silk, Y., Reddy, P. & Rahman, N. (2015). Final evaluation report:

Turnaround arts initiative. Washington, DC: President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities. http://pcah.gov

Taylor, P. C. (2016). Transformative science education. In R. Gunstone (Ed.). Encyclopedia

of Science Education (pp. 1079–1082). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

The Royal Society - Education Section, (2012). Shut down or restart? The way forward for

computing in UK schools - Executive summary: London, UK.

White D. W., (2014). What is STEM education and why is it important? Florida Association

of Teacher Educators Journal 1, 14 2014 1-9. Retrieved from http://www.fate1.org/journals/2014/white.pdf

UNESCO (2018). UNESCO Global Repot 2017. Retrieved 22ND April, 2020 from

https://en.unesco.org/creativity .

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31098/ijrse.v2i2.227

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 86 times
PDF : 35 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Olalekan Taofeek Badmus, Esther Ore Omosewo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.



International Journal of Research in STEM Education (IJRSE)

Mailing Address: 
Research Synergy Foundation
Jalan Nyaman no 31 
Komplek Sinergi Antapani 
Bandung 40291 - Indonesia. 

Faculty of Teacher Training and Education Universitas Terbuka Indonesia 
Jl. Pd. Cabe Raya, Pd. Cabe Udik, 
Kec. Pamulang, Kota Tangerang Selatan, 
Banten 15418. 
Phone: (021) 7490941. 



The International Journal of Research in STEM Education (IJRSE) is indexed by:
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.